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Research & References



Ahamed, Liaquat. Lords of Finance:The Bankers Who Broke the World, Penguin Books, London, England, 2009

Bagehot, Walter. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market (1873)

Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance, Grove Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990

Ferguson, Niall. The House of Rothschild: Volume 1: Money's Prophets: 1798-1848, Penguin Books, New York, NY, USA, 1999

Ferguson, Niall. The House of Rothschild: Volume 2: The World's Banker: 1849-1999, Penguin Books, New York, NY, USA, 2000

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press, 1962

Friedman, Milton and Anna Jacobson Schwartz. A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1963

Gardner, Richard N. Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy In Current Perspective: The Origins and Prospects of Our International Economic Order, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA,  1980

Goetzmann, William N. and K. Geert Rouwenhorst. The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations that Created Modern Capital Markets, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2005

Hayak, F.A. The Road to Serfdom, University of Chicago Press, 1944

Heilbroner, Robert L. The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1954

James, Harold. International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods, International Monetary Fund and Oxford University Press, 1996

Keynes, John Maynard, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, Harcourt, Brace, and Howe, Inc., New York, USA, 1919

Kindleberger, Charles P. The World in Depression, 1929-1939, U.of Calif. Press, Los Angeles, California, USA, 1986 (Revised and Enlarged Edition)

Mackay, Charles. Extraordinary Popular Delusions and Madness of Crowds, Richard Bentley, London, 1841

McGraw, Thomas K. Prophets of Regulation, Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 1984

Minskey, Hyman P. “Can It Happen Again? A Reprise,” Introduction to Minsky, Can It Happen Again? Essays on Instability and Finance, Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 1982

Minsky, Hyman P. Stabilizing An Unstable Economy, Yale University Press, 1986

Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Belknap, Harvard, 2014

Reinhart Carman M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff. This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton University Press, 2009


The Federal Reserve

At the core of the Federal Reserve System is the Board of Governors, or Federal Reserve Board. The Board of Governors, located in Washington, D.C., is a federal government agency that is the Fed's centralized component. The Board consists of seven members who are appointed by the president of the United States and confirmed by the Senate. These Governors guide the Federal Reserve's policy actions.

The U.S. Treasury

Treasury promotes economic growth through policies to support job creation, investment, and economic stability. Treasury also oversees the production of coins and currency, the disbursement of payments to the public, revenue collection, and the funds to run the federal government.

Bank of England

The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. Sometimes known as the “Old Lady” of Threadneedle Street, the Bank was founded in 1694, nationalised on 1 March 1946, and in 1997 gained operational independence to set monetary policy.

Financial Stability Board

The FSB has been established to coordinate at the international level the work of national financial authorities and international standard setting bodies and to develop and promote the implementation of effective regulatory, supervisory and other financial sector policies in the interest of financial stability.

Peterson Institute for International Economics

The Peterson Institute for International Economics is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy. Since 1981 the Institute has provided timely and objective analysis of, and concrete solutions to, a wide range of international economic problems. It is one of the very few think tanks that are widely regarded as "nonpartisan" by the press and "neutral" by the US Congress. Its research staff has been cited by the quality media more than that of any other such institution.

Institute of International Finance

The Institute of International Finance is the global association of the financial industry. Our members include commercial and investment banks, asset managers, insurance companies, sovereign wealth funds, hedge funds, central banks, and development banks. Membership currently stands at close to 500 financial institutions from 70 countries.

Group of Thirty

The Group of Thirty, established in 1978, is a private, nonprofit, international body composed of very senior representatives of the private and public sectors and academia. It aims to deepen understanding of international economic and financial issues, to explore the international repercussions of decisions taken in the public and private sectors, and to examine the choices available to market practitioners and policymakers.

The Bank for International Settlements

The mission of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is to serve central banks in their pursuit of monetary and financial stability, to foster international cooperation in those areas and to act as a bank for central banks.

The International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.

The World Bank

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development. The World Bank Group comprises five institutions managed by their member countries.

Office of Financial Research, United States Treasury

The OFR is an Office within Treasury established by Congress to serve the Financial Stability Oversight Council, its member agencies, and the public by improving the quality, transparency, and accessibility of financial data and information; by conducting and sponsoring research related to financial stability; and by promoting best practices in risk management.

Financial Stability Oversight Council, United States Treasury

As established under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Council provides, for the first time, comprehensive monitoring of the stability of our nation's financial system. The Council is charged with identifying risks to the financial stability of the United States; promoting market discipline; and responding to emerging risks to the stability of the United States' financial system. The Council consists of 10 voting members and 5 nonvoting members and brings together the expertise of federal financial regulators, state regulators, and an independent insurance expert appointed by the President.

The Financial Action Task Force 

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 by the Ministers of its Member jurisdictions.  The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.  The FATF is therefore a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.